Kalibangan is an ancient site of Indus Valley Civilization located on the southern bank of Ghaggar River (ancient Sarasvati) in Pilibangān, between Suratgarh and Hanumāngarh in Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan.
The town was buried under the sands of time for more than 4000 years until it was rediscovered by Luigi Tessitori, an Italian Indologist who was doing research on some ancient Indian texts. He was surprised to see the ruins of the area and identified them as prehistoric and pre-Mauryan. However, at that time it was not possible to conclude that the ruins are from Indus Valley Civilization.
After the Independence, most of the cities of Harappan and Indus became part of Pakistan. Hence, Indian archeologists were left with no option but to broaden the search for Harappan site in India only.
Dr. Amlānand Ghosh of the Archaeological Survey of India was the first person to identify this site as Harappan. Hence, Kalibangan was considered to be a prime site and the excavations for the site were carried out.
During the excavation it was found that the site contains both pre-Harappan and Harappan remains. The archeological evidence of pre-Harappan settlement was a fortified parallelogram whose walls were made up of dried mud bricks. A citadel mound was also found for which the planning was that of Mohenjodaro or Harappan.
An amazing discovery was a ploughed agricultural field showing a cross grid pattern of furrows which was the evidence of the field being from 2800 BC.
Pottery was another major discovery which relates to Harappan age (2500 BC - 1750 BC).
It was found that an earthquake occurred in Kalibangan around 2600 BC which lead to the end of pre-Harappan settlement at the site.
Apart from these, fire altars were also discovered which suggest fire worship. It is the only Indus Valley Civilization site without any evidence of mother goddess being worshipped. Animal remains were also found in some of the fire altars suggesting a possibility of animal sacrifice.
The Archaeological Museum of Kalibangan was setup in 1983 to store the excavated materials found during the excavation from 1961 to 1969. The antiquities are displayed in 3 galleries, one of which is especially dedicated to the pre-Harappan findings. The other two displays the artifacts from Harappan era.