Mesolithic age in India showing domestication of goats. Source: upscprelims
The archaeological site of Bagore is located on the Kothari River in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan. The excavation of this late Mesolithic site was done by Virendra Nath Mishra and Vasant Shinde, scholars of Deccan College, in 1960s and 1970s. They found the three stages of the pre-Harappan settlements which were 4480-3285 BC, 2765-500 BC and 500 BC to 400 AD, making it one of the oldest civilizations in Rajasthan. During the excavation, it was evident that the nomadic pastoralists of Bagore were indulged in domestication of cattle, goats and sheep in early 5000-3000 BC.
The excavation in this area which was done in 1977 revealed that the remains are approximately 4000 year old, estimated to be from the period of 2500-2000 BC. Nearly thousands of copper objects like fish hooks, bangles, spearheads, arrowheads and chisels were found. Black portraiture along with Red pottery was also found. The stone tools and microliths found impute that the Ganeshwar culture is from pre-Harappan period. It is believed that Ganeshwar were the main supplier of copper objects to Harappa. The site is located near the copper mines of Sikar and Jhunjhunu which are part of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan.
Gilund CivilizationsThe site of Gilund located in Rajsamand District, Rajasthan is a 22 hectare, two mound site situated near the Banas River in southern Rajasthan. In 1959-60, it was excavated for the first time by a team under the supervision of B. B. Lal of the Archaeological Survey of India. Recently, from 1999-2005 it was re-excavated by a team from Deccan College of Pune, India and the University of Pennsylvania. The site appears to have been occupied from 3000-1700 BC. During the excavations, large buildings with long parallel walls were uncovered, as well as various housing structures, refuse heaps, workshops and an outer wall encircling the site. The workshops acknowledged that occupants were indulged in small-scale craft production. Further scrutiny of the area revealed that the inhabitants used to practice agriculture along with the livestock herding.